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relative pronouns: dont, o¨, etc. present tense
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1. dont, où, lequel
  2. ce dont, ce + preposition + quoi


A relative pronoun introduces a clause that explains or describes a previously mentioned noun. In instances where the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition, relative pronouns other than qui and que must be used. De is the most common of these prepositions, and dont is the relative pronoun representing both the preposition de + its object. tex is an author

dont, où, lequel: relative pronouns with antecedent

• dont
Use dont if the subordinate clause needs an object introduced by de/d'. Such clauses may indicate possession or they may contain verbs which are followed by the preposition de. Some of these verbs include 'parler de' (to talk about); 'avoir besoin de' (to need); 'avoir peur de' (to be afraid of); 'tenir de' (to take after).

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Tex: Le livre dont je suis l'auteur est un roman historique.   Tex: The book of which I'm the author is an historical novel.

Dont often indicates possession; 'whose' is its English equivalent.

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Edouard, parlant du livre de Tex: Tex, dont le grand-père a combattu en France, en 40, a dédié ce livre à Paw-Paw.   Edouard, speaking about Tex' book: Tex, whose grandfather fought in France in '40, dedicated this book to Paw-Paw.


• où
The relative pronoun means 'where, in which, on which.' Use if the subordinate clause needs an object indicating location introduced by dans, à, sur, sous. When used after adverbs of time, means 'when.'

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Paris, l'histoire commence, va être libéré par les Américains.   Paris, where the story starts, is going to be liberated by the Americans.
Paw-Paw était à Paris le jour les Américains sont entrés dans la ville.   Paw-Paw was in Paris the day [when] the Americans entered the city.


• preposition + lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles
The relative pronouns lequel, laquelle, lesquels, and lesquelles (which) are used when the relative clause is introduced by a preposition other than de/d'. These pronouns make the usual contractions with the prepositions à and de. Note that the preoposition in French must always be placed immediately in front of the relative pronoun.

tex identifies
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Ce roman, dans lequel Tex utilise les souvenirs de guerre de Paw-Paw, est très réaliste.   This novel, in which Tex uses Paw-Paw's war memories, is very realistic.
Ses personnages, auxquels Tex s'identifie, sont des héros de la Résistance.   His characters, with whom Tex identifies, are heros of the Resistance.
L'homme à côté duquel Marie-Tammy est assise est un officier nazi.   The man next to whom Marie-Tammy is seated is a nazi officer.
Les hommes parmi lesquels Marie-Tammy se trouve sont tous des nazis.   The men among whom Marie-Tammy finds herself are all nazis.
Les deux femmes entre lesquelles l'officier se trouve font partie de la Résistance.   The two women between whom the officer is seated are part of the Resistance.

Note: The form dont is generally used in spoken French instead of the forms duquel, de laquelle, desquels, and desquelles; however, these latter forms may also be found, especially in written texts. Dont may be substituted only for the simple preposition de and its object, but a form of lequel must be used when de is part of a two- or three-word preposition, such as 'à propos de, près de, loin de, à côté de.'

ce dont, ce + preposition + quoi : relative pronouns with no antecedent
In all the preceding examples, the relative pronouns have an antecedent; in other words, a specific word in the sentence for which the relative pronoun stands. Just as the forms ce qui and ce que are used when there is no explicit antecedent, so the forms ce dont and ce + preposition + quoi refer to something unstated and unspecified.

Use ce dont if the subordinate clause needs an object introduced by de.

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On comprend très bien ce dont les Parisiens avaient peur pendant l'Occupation.   One understands very well what the Parisians were afraid of during the Occupation.


Use ce + preposition + quoi when the subordinate clause needs an object introduced by a preposition other than de. Remember that, unlike English, the preposition in French must always be placed immediately in front of the relative pronoun.

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Tout le monde va comprendre ce à quoi Tex fait allusion quand il décrit Jean-Tex et Marie-Tammy--il s'agit bien de Tex et Tammy, nos tatous favoris!   Everybody's going to understand what Tex is alluding to when he describes Jean-Tex and Marie-Tammy--it's indeed a matter of Tex and Tammy, our favorite armadillos!

texercises

fill in the blanks
Fill in the blank with the correct relative pronoun: dont, où, lequel, ce dont or ce à quoi.
1. Tammy : Lyon est la ville _______ Tex a grandi.


2. Joe-Bob : Je n'ai pas lu le livre _______ tu parles.


3. Tex : Le roman dans ________ Marie-Tammy apparaît s'appelle Guerre et amour.


4. Fiona : Le garçon ______ Bette est amoureuse est ...Tex!


5. Bette : _________ je parle n'a rien à voir avec Tex.


6. Tammy : Tex, tu sais ___________ je pense?


7. Tammy : Voici l'endroit _____ je veux me marier, Tex!


8. Tammy : Tex, tu es le tatou avec _______ je veux me marier!


9. Paw-Paw est un ancien combattant, ______ Tex est très fier.


10. Trey : Les chansons ________ je suis l'auteur sont au TOP20.


11. Tex : Tu me demandes __________ je réfléchis? A mon prochain poème bien sûr!


12. Tammy : Le béret ______ j'ai fait cadeau à Tex est superbe.